Interest rates in the USA (Fed), eurozone (ECB), UK (BoE), and Japan (BoJ). Note: Fed is the federal funds rate; ECB is the interest rate on the main refinancing operations; BoE is the Bank of England base rate; BoJ is the overnight call rate target. Sources: official websites of the U.S. Federal Reserve (, ECB (, Bank of England (, and Bank of Japan (

  Part of: Kuznetsova O, Merzlyakov S, Pekarski S (2019) Confidence in future monetary policy as a way to overcome the liquidity trap. Russian Journal of Economics 5(2): 117-135.