Debt outstanding by regions and municipalities in 2009 through 2015 (% of GDP). Sources: Russian Ministry of Finance; calculations by HSE Centre of Development Institute.

 
 
  Part of: Akindinova N, Kuzminov Y, Yasin E (2016) Russia's economy: Before the long transition. Russian Journal of Economics 2(3): 219-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ruje.2016.08.001